Instrumental case


The instrumental case is often used to indicate the instrument that assists in carrying out an action. This case answers questions “With whom?”,  “By whom?” (for animate) or “With what?|By what?”


На работе я обычно пишу ручкой, а дома карандашом [Na rabotye ya abychna peashoo roochkoy, a: doma karandashom]

 At work I usually write by pen and at home I write by pencil 

Вчера Мария говорила со своим директором [Vchera Marija gavarila so svoim dearectorom]

— Yesterday Maria had spoken with her director

Том работает менеджером, а Татьяна актрисой [Tom rabotaet menedgerom a: Tat'ana actrisoj] 

— Tom workes as a manager and Tat'ana works as an actriss

Мы не интересуемся большим спортом [My ne eanteresooyemsia bol'sheam sportom] — Big sport is not interesting us


Typical endings

Verbs with which we usually use instrumental case:


быть (кем?) [byt'] — to be (whom?)

стать (кем; чем) [sta:t'] — to become (whom; what)

являться (кем; чем) [javliatsa] — to appear (someone to someone alse) ; to come (to somewhere)

заниматься (чем?) [zaneamatsa] — to engage in; to do

интересоваться (чем?) [interesovatsa] —to be interested in

увлекаться (кем; чем) [oovlekatsa] — to get involved

работать (кем; чем) [rabotat'] — to work as


Prepositions for instrumental case: 

[s] = with; 

между [myezh-doo] = between; 

над [nad] = over; 

под [pod] = below; 

and перед [pye-reet] = in front of.